大谷将士, KEK

[金茶会] 第4回 ミューオン冷却・加速技術の現在と展望

Okuto Morikawa, Osaka University

Lattice description of generalized symmetries and topological phenomena

##### Recently, the notion of symmetry is generalized so that we can get further information on low-energy dynamics in strongly coupled field theories. This is described in terms of topological operators and also category. It would be crucial that topology of gauge fields is nontrivial in a fully regularized framework; e.g., continuity appears to be lost under lattice regularization. L¥”uscher addressed this issue for $SU(2)$ gauge fields and defined the topological charge on a lattice explicitly. We apply L¥”uscher’s construction to generalized symmetries. We consider lattice $SU(N)$ gauge theories coupled with $¥mathbb{Z}_N$ $ 2$-form gauge fields, and show the fractionality of the topological charge on $SU(N)/¥mathbb{Z}_N$ principal bundle. Also the mixed ‘t Hooft anomaly and higher-group structure are realized. We become interested in monopole physics as a topological phenomenon on the lattice.

Shuzhe Shi, Tsinghua

[QCD theory seminar] Real time non-perturbative dynamics in Schwinger model — jet production, charge transport, and more

##### Addressing QCD scattering processes theoretically requires a real-time, nonperturbative method. It is well known that the Schwinger model [QED in (1+1) dimensions] shares many common properties with QCD, including confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, and the existence of vacuum fermion condensate. As a step in developing such an approach, we report here on fully quantum simulations, using classical devices, of a massive Schwinger model. We study the chiral condensate and entanglement entropy caused by jet propagation[2301.11991]. We also explore the propagation of vector and axial charge, i.e., CMW, and observe different oscillation frequencies[2305.05685]. The phase structure of the Schwinger model at finite temperature and chemical potential will also be discussed[2305.00996].

So Chigusa, LBNL & UC Berkeley

Estimating eV-Scale Background Rates for Dark Matter Direct Detection

##### A promising strategy for direct detection of sub-MeV dark matter is to look for phonon excitations in crystals. The crystal targets used in such experiments are typically not completely pure, and have impurities or defects. The point defects of our interest include the Frenkel defects, hydrogen and oxygen impurities, and so on. These defects can diffuse and recombine to emit energy in the form of phonons, and can potentially create a background for direct detection experiments. We estimate the defect densities produced through thermal excitations as well as radiogenic nuclear recoils. For various defect configurations, we quantify the diffusion and recombination rates for both thermal and quantum tunneling mechanisms. We find that the thermally generated Frenkel defects are effectively frozen at cryogenic temperatures and cannot diffuse to recombine with each other. The hydrogen impurity is the unique point defect that has non-negligible diffusion rate at cryogenic temperatures, and possibly contributes to the eV-scale events. The radiogenic defects produced on the surface can be annealed effectively at room temperature for typical defect configurations, but defects produced through radiogenic nuclear recoils in a shielded environment at cryogenic temperatures during the run-time of the experiment can recombine to produce eV-scale events. We provide estimates of these background event rates and give some remarks on subtleties we need to take care of in this kind of experimental setups.

Kunio Kaneta, Osaka University

Gravity at Work: Understanding Particle Production and Distribution

##### Despite its apparent weakness, gravity is a vital force driving particle production in the early Universe. To explore this production process, two different but well-established frameworks are commonly used, which are known as the Boltzmann and Bogoliubov approaches. I will first discuss a crucial aspect of these frameworks—their equivalence in pure gravitational production—to answer the question of whether these approaches yield consistent outcomes. In doing so, we will see the phase space distribution as a key quantity. This distribution will then serve as a useful tool to address yet another important question: Did the Higgs field predominantly exist as condensate or fluctuations in the earliest times? which will be discussed in the second part of the talk.

望月拓郎, 京都大学数理解析研究所

[金茶会] 第３回 代数・幾何・解析の不思議なつながり- 純ツイスター D-加群とその周辺

Takashi Shimomura, Miyazaki University

Revisiting sterile neutrino dark matter in gauged B-L model

##### Sterile neutrino is a decaying dark matter candidate which can be produced non-thermally in the early Universe. Gauged B-L symmetric extension of the standard model naturally accommodates such a sterile neutrino dark matter, and also provides new mediators, B-L gauge boson and symmetry breaking scalar boson. Viable ranges of the dark matter mass and coupling have been studied in this mode. In this talk, we reexamine the freeze-in production of the sterile neutrino dark matter in gauged B-L model. Longitudinal mode contributions in scattering processes as well as inverse decays of the B-L gauge boson and scalar boson are taken into account in our analyses. We will discuss the contributions from these for different mass spectra of the dark matter, gauge boson and scalar boson. Then it is shown that the contributions from these are large and the allowed parameter space is changed from previous studies.

Zixia Wei, RIKEN iTHEMS

Low entanglement states, black holes and computational efficiency

##### In modern statistical physics, typicality plays a crucial role since it states that almost all the microstates possessing a certain energy are locally indistinguishable from the canonical ensemble. Such states are called typical states and possess a large amount of entanglement. On the other hand, states whose entanglement are parameterically lower than a state are rare. We will call such states low entanglement states. In this talk, we will show that low entanglement states, while rare, are sufficient to account for the leading order of the thermodynamic entropy. We will also present a concrete way to construct such a basis. At the end, we will discuss its implication to the black holes, and its applications to computational physics.

Avelino Vicente (IFIC, Valencia (Spain))

The Scotogenic mechanism: from model to paradigm

##### Neutrinos are very light fermions, a fact that can be well understood if their masses are induced at loop level. Many radiative neutrino mass models have been proposed along the years. The Scotogenic model is a very economical and popular setup that induces Majorana neutrino masses at the 1-loop level and includes a viable dark matter candidate. Based on the original model, many variants can be constructed.

We discuss specific variations of the Scotogenic model with alternative representations under the Standard Model gauge group and additional Scotogenic states, perhaps coming from ultraviolet extended setups. These variants of the Scotogenic paradigm have novel phenomenological predictions and may explain some long-standing anomalies.

Keisuke Harigaya, University of Chicago

Parity symmetry breaking scale and Standard Model parameters